"[130], Charles VIII and the French war over Naples, the brother of Francesco della Rovere, later, (also known as the "War of the League of Cambrai". He seemed less enthused by theology; rather, Paul Strathern argues, his imagined heroes were military leaders such as Frederic Colonna. Once crowned, Julius II proclaimed instead his goal to centralize the Papal States (in large part a patchwork of communes and signorie) and "free Italy from the barbarians". This was directed against King Louis XII.[106]. Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and Bishop of Ostia, presided. [32], Around this time, in 1483, an illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere. 6 from Germany (Pope Gregory V, Pope Clement II, Pope Damasus II, Pope Victor II, Pope Leo IX, and Pope Benedict XVI) 4 from Greece ( Pope Anacletus , Pope Hyginus , Pope Eleutherius , and Pope Sixtus II ) The conclave capitulation preceding his election included several terms, such as the opening of an ecumenical council and the organization of a crusade against the Ottoman Turks. Language; Watch; Edit; This is a container category. He received a Franciscan education as a young man and was promoted to the offices of priest, bishop, and cardi- nal by his uncle Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471–84), between the years 1471 and 1479, there- after serving as pope from 1503 until his death in 1513. [68] On 3 January 1503, Cardinal Orsini was arrested and sent to the Castel S. Angelo; on 22 February he died there, poisoned on orders of Alexander VI.[69]. The Pope was again in attendance at the fourth session on 10 December, this time to hear the accrediting of the Venetian Ambassador as the Serene Republic's representative at the council; he then had the letter of King Louis XI (of 27 November 1461), in which he announced the revocation of the Pragmatic Sanction, read out to the assembly, and demanded that all persons who accepted the Pragmatic Sanction appear before the Council within sixty days to justify their conduct. [125] This sexual reputation survived Julius, and the accusation continued to be made without reservation by Protestant opponents in their polemics against "papism" and Catholic decadence. [75] The rooms were used to accommodate Emperor Charles V on his visit to the Vatican after the Sack of Rome (1527), and subsequently, they became the residence of the Cardinal-nephew and then the Secretary of State. [12] He had three brothers: Bartolomeo, a Franciscan friar who then became Bishop of Ferrara (1474–1494);[13] Leonardo; and Giovanni, Prefect of the City of Rome (1475–1501)[14] and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia. Born: 5-Dec-1443 Birthplace: Albisola, Italy Died: 21-Feb-1513 Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: Fever Remains: Buried, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Folger Shakespeare Library: referencedIn: Bulas y Breves, siglos XIII-XVII [Manuscrito]. He also became known as "the warrior pope" and il papa terribile. He [Alexander VI] desecrated the Holy Church as none before. He was educated among the Franciscans by his uncle, who took him under his special charge and later sent him to a convent in La Pérouse with the purpose of obtaining knowledge of the sciences. They are listed in chronological order within each section. Pastor, VI, pp. "[97], Whereupon Julius entered into another Holy League of 1511: in alliance with Ferdinand II of Aragon and the Venetians he conspired against the Gallican liberties. 486; 108. [26], In 1479, Cardinal Giuliano served his one-year term as Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals. [109] On Christmas Eve, Julius ordered Paris to summon the College of Cardinals and the Sacristan of the Apostolic Palace, quia erat sic infirmus, quod non-speraret posse diu supravivere. This portrait of the careworn Pope Julius II (1443–1513) is usually dated to the one-and-a-half-year period during which he wore a beard. His costly concern with the arts and politics alienated northern Europe and helped pave the way for the Reformation. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/pope-julius-ii-8285.php, The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs. 26. 762, 768–772. However, he never neglected his duties as the spiritual head of the Church, and heard mass almost daily and often celebrated it himself. It must be crossed out of every document and memorial. Joannes Burchard. The ambassador of Ferrara stated, "While with his uncle [Della Rovere] had not the slightest influence, he now obtains whatever he likes from the new Pope. [25] On 22 December 1475, Pope Sixtus IV created the new Archdiocese of Avignon, assigning to it as suffragan dioceses the Sees of Vaison, Cavaillon, and Carpentras. [114] Michelangelo's tomb was not completed until 1545 and represents a much-abbreviated version of the planned original, which was initially intended for the new St. Peter's Basilica. Eubel, II, p. 56, nos.649 and 651. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican. [citation needed], On 2 March 1487, Giuliano was appointed legate in the March of Ancona and to the Republic of Venice. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. This re-asserted a strong relation between Florence and Rome, a lasting legacy of Julius II. [28] He returned to Rome on 3 February 1482. Pope Julius II's health gradually declined following his successful campaign against the French, and he had remarked about his failing health to Paris de Grassis in May 1512. [89] In 1508, Julius was fortuitously able to form the League of Cambrai with Louis XII, King of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (proclaimed without coronation as Emperor by Pope Julius II at Trent in 1508) and Ferdinand II, King of Aragon. In the autumn of 1499, he called for a crusade and sought aid and money from all Christendom. [5], At the Congress of Mantua in 1512, Julius II ordered the restoration of Italian families to power in the vacuum of French rule: the Imperial Swiss led by Massimiliano Sforza restored Sforza rule in Milan, and a Spanish army led by Giovanni de Medici restored Medici rule in Florence. Following the death of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, he was promoted to suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia in 1483. [b] Among other things, Julius wanted possession of Venetian Romagna; Emperor Maximilian I wanted Friuli and Veneto; Louis XII wanted Cremona, and Ferdinand II desired the Apulian ports. When a desperate battle felled over 20,000 men in a bloodbath the Pope commanded his protege, a newly released young Cardinal Medici to re-take Florence with a Spanish army. [90] The League fought against the Republic of Venice. [41] On 28 June the Pope sent back to Naples the token gift of a palfrey which symbolized the King of Naples' submission and demanded the full feudal submission of the Kingdom of Naples to the Roman Church according to long-standing tradition. A warrior pope, he failed to bring Italy under papal control. This is a list of Roman Catholic popes by nationality. The same year he organized the renowned Swiss Guards for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. His costly concern with the arts and politics alienated northern Europe and helped pave the way for the Reformation. In the same year, the Pope founded the Swiss Guard to provide a constant corps of soldiers to protect the pope. The last remnants of the French invasion were gone by November 1496. But Ferrante's army decided the pope's humiliation, Innocent backed down and on 10 August signed a treaty. [77][91] This war was a conflict in what was collectively known as the "Italian Wars". [36], By 1484 Giuliano was living in the new palazzo which he had constructed next to the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, which he had also restored. Alexander's plan of securing a royal throne for his son fell through, and he was very angry. Dumesnil, pp. However, it is likely that the closeness was down to the fact that he simply knew how to handle him well. However, it does not take very much effort to discover which way Julius leans. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, and it may be that Giuliano was already in residence then. Giuliano was traveling back and forth from Lyon to Avignon, raising troops. However, he was not laid there, and the 'Tomb of Julius II', finished long after his death, was instead placed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, where the pope first became a cardinal. A member of the Franciscan order, his career was significantly boosted when his uncle was elected as Pope Sixtus IV (1471). Pope Julius II bull, 1504. The pope's hirsute chin may have raised severe, even vulgar criticism, as at one Bologna banquet held in 1510 at which papal legate Marco Cornaro was present. 10-11 (with a defective chronology). Eubel, II, p. 56, no 656. In the spring of 1509, the Republic of Venice was placed under an interdict by Julius,[92] In May 1509 Julius sent troops to fight against the Venetians who had occupied parts of the Romagna, winning back the Papal States in a decisive battle near Cremona. Pastor, VI, pp. Pastor, VI, p. 121, note §. His remains were laid alongside his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV, but following the Sack of Rome in 1527, they were moved to St. Peter's Basilica. Other more pressing problems distracted the attention of Nicholas and subsequent popes, but Julius was not the sort of person to be distracted once he had settled on an idea, in this case, for the greatest building on earth, for the glory of Saint Peter and himself. [42] Ferrante reacted by seizing the fiefs of the barons, and, when the two parties met to negotiate a settlement, Ferrante had them arrested, and eventually executed. The papacy gained control of Parma and Piacenza in central Italy. Julius III, born Giovanni Maria del Monte, Roman Catholic Pope from 1550 to 1555, was born on the 10th of September 1487. On Palm Sunday, 1507, "Julius II entered Rome ... both as a second Julius Caesar, heir to the majesty of Rome's imperial glory, and in the likeness of Christ, whose vicar the pope was, and who in that capacity governed the universal Roman Church. [66], On 21 June 1502, Pope Alexander sent his secretary, Francesco Troche (Trochia), and Cardinal Amanieu d'Albret (brother-in-law of Cesare Borgia) to Savona to seize Cardinal della Rovere by stealth and bring him back to Rome as quickly as possible and turn him over to the Pope. Pope Julius II was the 216th leader of the Catholic Church and the second among those great men to guide by the papal name of “Julius.” This article seeks to distinguish him from his many papal forebears and successors by focusing on specifics and details of his life and papacy. Pastor, VI, p. 61 with note ||. Marino Sanuto, I, p. 555. Like voting is closed. Ludwig Pastor quotes the Florentine ambassador as remarking, "[Pope Innocent] gives the impression of a man who is guided rather by the advice of others than by his own lights." Also Known As: Fearsome Pope, Warrior Pope, Giuliano della Rovere, Spiritual & Religious Leaders [56] By June, however, the Pope was in negotiations with the Cardinal for reconciliation and return to Rome. Decrees were made in the interests of the Roman nobility, in whose shoes the new pope now stepped. [126] The Venetians, who were implacably opposed to the pope's new military policy, were among the most vociferous opponents; notable among them was the diarist Girolamo Priuli. Also known as the “warrior- pope,” Pope Julius II was born Giuliano della Rovere in 1443. Despite the fact that the so-called "Tomb of Julius" by Michelangelo is in San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome, Julius is in fact buried in the Vatican. When Cesare Borgia passed through southern France in October 1498 on his way to meet King Louis XII for his investiture as Duke of Valentinois, he stopped in Avignon and was magnificently entertained by Cardinal della Rovere. He reached Paris in September, and finally, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, who had been commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. The idea was not his, but originally that of Nicholas V, who had commissioned designs from Bernardo Rossellino. The Kingdom of Naples was under Spanish rule, and the Borja family from Spain was a major political faction in the Papal States following the reign of Alexander VI. [22][23][24], In 1474, Giuliano led an army to Todi, Spoleto, and Città di Castello as papal legate. Pastor, V, p. 491. There is disagreement about Julius' date of birth. As of 2018 Pope Julius is 69 years (age at death) years old. The current Pope Benedict XVI is the 265th pope in church history. [12] The King entered Rome with his army on 31 December 1495, with Giuliano della Rovere riding on one side and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza riding on the other. The kidnapping party returned to Rome on 12 July, without having accomplished its mission. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. His name and memory must be forgotten. Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, sive Summorum pontificum, S.R.E. "[38] Della Rovere was one of the five cardinals named to the committee to make the arrangements for the Coronation. On 1 September 1499 Lodovico Il Moro fled Milan, and on 6 September the city surrendered to the French. "Giuliano, whom the popular voice seemed to indicate as the only possible pope, was as unscrupulous as any of his colleagues in the means which he employed. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. [47] Cardinal Giuliano was increasingly alarmed by the powerful position assumed by Cardinal Ascanio Sforza and the Milanese faction in the Court of Alexander VI, and after Christmas Day in December 1492 chose to withdraw to his fortress in the town and diocese of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber River. "[108] Nonetheless, he continued his restless activities, including Masses, visits to churches, and audiences. The rescue of the city on 1 September 1512 saved Rome from another invasion, ousting Soderini, and returning the dynastic rule of the Medici. He is also remembered as a patron of the arts who hired Michelangelo to repaint the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel, commissioned four exquisitely painted rooms from Raphael, and commissioned Bramante for the construction of a new basilica in place of old St. Peter's. In a short time, both Henry VIII, King of England (1509–47), and Maximilian I also joined the Holy League of 1511 against France. "[71] Indeed, his election on 1 November 1503 took only a few hours, and the only two votes he did not receive were his own and the one of Georges d'Amboise, his most vigorous opponent and the favourite of the French monarchy. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardinal della Rovere accompanied the new Pope to the Vatican Palace and was the only one to remain with him. [31] It was the privilege of the Bishop of Ostia to consecrate an elected pope a bishop, if he were not already a bishop. When Julius is asked why he makes a point of declaring his nationality, he responds, “I consider it the very height of piety to ennoble my nation” (p.56). [12][77] In 1504, finding it impossible to succeed with the Doge of Venice by remonstrance, he brought about a union of the conflicting interests of France and the Holy Roman Empire, and sacrificed temporarily to some extent the independence of Italy to conclude with them an offensive and defensive alliance against Venice. In his early years as Pope, Julius II removed the Borjas from power and exiled them to Spain. Genoa and Venice supported the Papacy, while Florence and Milan opted for Naples. Pastor, V, p. 326. Pope Julius is a member of famous Celebrity list. Gregorovius, VII.2, pp. Ludwig von Pastor wrote, "Paris de Grassis, his Master of Ceremonies, who has handed on to us so many characteristic features of his master's life, says that he hardly ever jested. Having previously declared that the Imperial election was sufficient for Maximilian to style himself as Holy Roman Emperor, he later obtained Habsburg support against France as well. According to an oath taken on his election to observe the Electoral Capitulations of the Conclave of October 1513,[100] Julius had sworn to summon a general council, but it had been delayed, he affirmed, because of the occupation of Italy by his enemies. But urgent reports arrived from the King of Hungary that the Ottoman Sultan was threatening Italy. [118] His proposals for S. Peter's, however, were not accepted despite what he believed to be a promise, and he retired in anger to Florence.[119]. Julius had seemingly restored fortuna or control by exercising his manly vertu, just as Machiavelli wrote. A second design was submitted by Giuliano da Sangallo, an old friend of Julius, who had worked on several projects for him before, including the palazzo at S. Pietro in Vincoli, and who had left Rome with Julius when he fled the wrath of Alexander VI in 1495. Antonello de Sanseverino was the brother-in-law of Cardinal della Rovere's brother Giovanni, who was a noble of Naples because of his fief of Sora. However, Pius III died after a short reign of 26 days, paving the way for his ascension as Pope Julius II, which he still secured by offering bribes and making great promises to the cardinals. Nationality: Italy Executive summary: Roman Catholic Pope, 1503-13 Saved by an allegory to the Expulsion of Helidorus, the French gone, Julius collapsed once again in late 1512, very seriously ill once more. His manner was gruff and coarse, just as his peasant-like sense of humour. Until the 20th century, a Cardinal did not have to be in major Holy Orders (Bishop, Priest, Deacon—which involved the vow of celibacy), unless he hoped to vote in a papal conclave. [93] The achievements of the League soon outstripped the primary intention of Julius. Pope Julius IV born as Claudio Atillio Ciano; (born December 17, 1936, aged 77) is the 265th Pope of the Fabrian Catholic Church, a position also holding the roles … This actually occurred in the case of Pius III (Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini), who was ordained a priest on 30 September 1503 and consecrated a bishop on 1 October 1503 by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. When Swiss mercenaries came to the Pope's aid, the French army withdrew across the Alps into Savoy in 1512. Paul Maria Baumgarten, in: W.R.Albury, Castiglione's Francescopaedia: Pope Julius II and Francesco Maria Della Rovere in The Book of the Courtier, Encyclopædia Britannica (2003) pp.648-649. [55], In March 1497 Pope Alexander deprived Cardinal della Rovere of his benefices as an enemy of the Apostolic See, and Giovanni della Rovere of the Prefecture of Rome. Some twenty years later, when Henry was attempting to wed Anne Boleyn (since his son by Catherine of Aragon survived only a few days, and two of her sons were stillborn, and therefore he had no male heir), he sought to have his marriage annulled, claiming that the dispensation of Pope Julius should never have been issued. Mansi, XXXII, pp. The Kingdom of Naples was recognized as a papal fief. [59] They then moved on to meet the King at Chinon, where Cesare Borgia fulfilled one of the terms of the treaty between Louis and Alexander by producing the red hat of a cardinal, which had been promised for the Archbishop of Rouen, Georges d'Amboise. As the Belford-Clarke edition of the unauthorized. [58], King Charles VIII of France, the last of the senior branch of the House of Valois, died on 7 April 1498 after accidentally striking his head on the lintel of a door at the Château d'Amboise. He was later sent by this same uncle (who by that time had become Minister General of the Franciscans (1464–1469)), to the Franciscan friary in Perugia, where he could study the sciences at the University. In overturning the ban on beards Pope Julius challenged Gregorian conventional wisdom in dangerous times. Eugène Müntz, "Giuliano da San Gallo et Les monuments antiques du midi de la France au XV, Mark J Zucker, Raphael and the Beard of Pope Julius II, pp.525-527, Carlotta, the daughter of the King of Naples, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Above all, the notion of Julius II for barbarian hostilty seems to have been a genuine inspiration...the Pope's desired derived...from the Pope's harbouring an ancient grudge against them, or because over the years his suspicion grew into hate, or because he desired 'the glory of being the man who liberated Italy from the barbarians', https://archive.org/details/hierarchiacathol02eubeuoft, History of the Great Reformation of the Sixteenth Century in Germany, "Papal Politics and Raphael's Stanza Della Segnatura as Papal Golden Age", Sermon Cardinal Sodano on the pontificate of Pope Julius II, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Julius_II&oldid=999351888, Roman Catholic prince-bishops in the Holy Roman Empire, Major Penitentiaries of the Apostolic Penitentiary, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from March 2012, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles containing unlinked shortened footnotes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rafaello della Rovere and Theodora Manerola, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:12. 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